Terms in household clean water availability

  • There are various ways to define the term of “household”. (Sadoulet & De Janvry 1995) assert that the concept of household varies widely across cultures. This study defines household as the group of people living together and sharing the same kitchen or, in the case of piped water households, using the same piped water.

The independent variables in this study are the determinants of WTP for water service improvements. They were chosen based on the previous study on WTP of water service improvements in several other places as well as the consumer theory. The variables are:

Willingness to Pay (WTP): The maximum amount of income a respondent will pay in exchange for an improvement in their water supply services as it is mentioned in the hypothetical scenario. In this study, WTP acts as a dependent variable and measured in monetary units
Sex (Sex): This dummy variable represents respondents’ gender difference. SEX is defined as SEX=1 if the respondent is female and SEX=0 if otherwise. The variable predicted parameter is expected to have a positive sign to indicate that females are likely to have a higher WTP. This hypothesis is based on the fact that women usually deal with domestic affairs; including water fetching. As a consequence, they are expected to have a higher WTP.
Total Family Size (TotFam): It is the number of individuals that live in a household. It is expected that a larger household size will increase the tendency to have a higher WTP. The household is likely to need more water if they have more people living in a household.
Year of Education (Edu): This is representing human capital endowment and knowledge. It is expected that an increase in individual years of education will increase the understanding of water importance and, therefore, the respondent’s WTP will be higher.
Installation Cost (Inscost): Normally all individual household store their water  either in tank or drum or bucket and etc. This variable shows the cost of installation of place where they reserve the stored water.
Pipe Dummy (pipe_dum): This variable represents new dummy variable pipe dummy where 1= for piped water households and 0=non-piped households. If this dummy is significant it would mean that piped and non-piped households have significantly different WTP.

Generally, the overall result of this study revealed that households were not just interested in the improvement of water supply services, but also other facilities and infrastructures. Thus, Government and nongovernmental organizations should give attention to socio economic characteristics to provide and design water service improvements and quality infrastructure facilities to Bariga Lagos state.

Service providers can design and implement a good waterimprovement scheme to satisfy the water needs of the households, although at the same time collecting more revenue by selling the improved water at a higher price to recover the costs since households were willing to pay for more improved services.

To avoid water supply shortage during the dry season the service providers/ government should be careful at selecting the appropriate location and designing the type of improved water scheme to withstand the dry season syndrome.

The results of the study showed that the existing water is of poor quality (not safe to drink), and thus the service providers should take in to consideration the quality and distance problems in designing the water system for residents, while providing same in a well tidy and neat environment.

This aspect focuses on the presentation and analysis of data obtained from the research questionnaires. The data collected from the respondents and field study was presented in order to achieve the objectives of this research project.

The outcome from the survey on the background information of respondents was presented and analyzed using descriptive analysis. The background information was centered on respondents’ gender, qualification; type of building occupied e,t,c. These questions were to have confidence from whom the data were collected. Analytical techniques involved frequency distribution tables and Chi-Square Statistical Tool



  1. Profile photo ofItz Kvng Twitch


    Very interesting

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  4. Reply

    Good to know about it

  5. Profile photo ofSIRMUSTY


    nice article

  6. Reply

    Very nice write up

  7. Reply

    Nice info

  8. Reply

    Good Piece

  9. Reply


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  11. Reply

    Very true

  12. Reply

    Alright, thanks for the information

  13. Reply

    Cool article

  14. Reply

    Nice article

  15. Reply


  16. Profile photo ofKreator


    Very nice write up

  17. Reply

    An educative piece. Hope to see more of this

  18. Reply

    Thanks for sharing this update

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