History of Nigeria
The history of Nigeria can be traced to prehistoric settlers (Nigerians) living in the area as early as 1100 BC. Numerous ancient African civilizations settled in the region that is today Nigeria, such as the Kingdom of nri the Benin empire, and the oyo empire phone . Islam reached Nigeria through the borno empire between (1068 AD) and Hausa state around (1385 AD) during the 11th century, while Christainity came to Nigeria in the 15th century through Augustinian and Capuchin monks from Portugal. The Songhal empire also occupied part of the region.
The history of Nigeria has been crucially impacted by the Transatlantic slave trade which started in Nigeria in the late 15th century. At first, Europeans captured Nigerians who lived in coastal communities. Later, they used local brokers to provide them with slaves. This dynamic escalated conflicts among the different ethnic groups in the region and disrupted older trade patterns through the Trans Sahara routine
Lagos was invaded by British forces in 1851 and formally annexed in 1865. Nigeria became a British protectorate in 1901. Colonization lasted until 1960, when an independence movement succeeded in gaining Nigeria its independence. Nigeria first became a republic in 1963, but succumbed to military rule three years later after a bloody coup d’etat. A separatist movement later formed the Republic of biafra in 1967, leading to the three-year Nigeria Civil War. Nigeria became a republic once again after a new constitution was written in 1979. However, the republic was short-lived, when the military seized power again four years later. A new republic was planned to be established in 1993, but was dissolved by General Sani Abacha died in 1998 and a fourth republic h was later established the following year, which ended three decades of intermittent military rule.Nigeria is often referred to as the”Giant of African Countries”, owing to its large population and economy. With 206 million inhabitants, Nigeria is the most popular country in Africa and the seventh most populous country in world . Nigeria has the third-largest youth population in the world, after india and China, with more than 90 million of its population under the age of eighteen. Nigeria is the world’s 24th largest economy according to the list by the IMF (2020 estimates), worth more than $500 billion and $1 trillion in terms of nominal GDP and purchasing power and parity respectively The 2013 debt to GDP ratio was 11 percent.
Nigeria is viewed as a multinational state as it is inhabited by over 250 ethnic groups,of which the three largest are the Hausa, igbo and Yoruba ; these ethnic groups speak over 500 distinct languages and are identified with a wide variety of cultures.The official language of Nigeria is English, chosen to facilitate linguistic unity at the national level. Nigeria is divided roughly in half between Christains who live mostly in the southern part of the country, and Muslim, who live mostly in the north. A minority of the population practice religious Indiginous to Nigeria, such as those native to the igbo and Yoruba ethnicities.